Vehicle Dynamics Library

Vehicle Model Architecture for Vehicle Dynamics
Vehicle running over a crest
Car on shaker rig
Tanker trunk through a double lane change
8 Wheeled vehicle dynamics model

Extensible and customisable models and templates allows the user to easily construct their own modelsPassenger cars with scenarios for on-road and test rig experimentsSupports the simulation of heavy vehicles such as tractor-trailer rigsAdapt the vehicle templates to support multi-axle and unconventional vehicles


The Vehicle Dynamics Library for Dymola gives the user a toolbox for full vehicle modelling and simulation. This hierarchical Modelica library includes a comprehensive set of templates, that when combined with the extensive collection of predefined suspensions and components, allows different vehicle configurations to be created in a convenient and straight-forward way.

The Vehicle Dynamics Library can be used in conjunction with other Modelica libraries in Dymola to create truly multi-domain vehicle models. For example, this multi-domain modelling nature facilitates the user to create hybrid electric vehicles or perform active system development in a single modelling environment.

Key Features
Heavy Vehicles
    • Both tabular and multibody kinematic and elasto-kinematic suspension models available.
    • Variety of vehicle configuration possible, including cars and heavy vehicles.
    • Comprehensive library of ready-to-use templates and predefined components and subsystems, that are extensible to meet the users requirements.
    • Infrastructure for full vehicle and subsystem analysis which includes roads, drivers, and test rigs.
    • Multi-domain vehicle models in a single modelling environment, allowing coherent system and component design in the same tool.
    • Real-time simulation capability.
    VDL library and model architecture
  • There are two main types of suspension models within the Vehicle Dynamics Library:

    1. Tabular suspension where wheel motion constraints are described by table inputs. Tabular suspension models are convenient to use when empirical suspension data from kinematic and compliance analysis is used for model tuning.
    2. Geometric suspension where the actual mechanical topology is described by multibody links, joints, and bushing elements. The geometric suspension models permit mechanical redesign effects to be studied, as well as the analysis or design of actively controlled suspension with embedded actuators.
    Tabular Suspension modelGeometric suspension models

  • The Vehicle Dynamics Library contains a collection of common car and light truck suspension configurations which are ready-to-use. These include McPherson strut, trailing arm, double wishbone, multi-link, twist beam, and rigid axle suspensions.

    The components and templates available allow the user to easily create their own customised suspension models, which can be kinematic or elasto-kinematic systems. For those who want to design their own suspension, the Vehicle Dynamics Library includes standard multibody primitives, such as joints and bodies, and dedicated components, such as bushings, leaf springs, links, struts and hubs.

    The Vehicle Dynamics Library contains a wide variety of experiments, from component through to full vehicle analysis. These include a number of industry standard vehicle manoeuvres, such as Fishhook and J Turn, as well as kinematic and four/seven post rigs. For full vehicle analysis the road surface and atmospheric conditions can be controlled to replicate any test condition. The road surface can be defined as a smooth 3D road or road roughness can be included.

    Animation of vehicle model
  • The Vehicle Dynamics Library provides designers of heavy vehicles with a purpose built environment for the modelling and simulation of heavy vehicles, which includes:

    • Axle-based suspension designs for the steerable and non-steerable wheels.
    • Leaf springs which are commonly used for both axle guidance and load support.
    • Modelling suspension load characteristics in a variety of ways from linear to tabular or physical models such as air springs.
    • The frame elasticity influences on the load distribution between the axles, which affects the available grip from the tires.

    The library contains many templates and components that are specific to heavy vehicles, such as axles, twin tires, couplings, frames, loads and cabins. There are a number of heavy vehicle chassis configuration examples, such as 4 axle full trailer, 3 axle semi-trailer, three axle tractor, three axle tractor with twin rear axles, two or three axle truck and articulated 4 wheeler. The templates are easy to customise to model any vehicle configuration.

    Tractor and Double Trailer
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